Appendice:Inglese/Verbi irregolari

Da Wikizionario, il dizionario a contenuto aperto.

La seguente è una tabella di verbi inglesi irregolari.

Nella prima colonna i verbi vengono numerati. La seconda contiene l'infinito del verbo, seguito eventualmente da altre forme del presente semplice. Nella terza colonna abbiamo il passato semplice. Il participio passato nella quarta. La quinta colonna annota se il verbo appartiene ai verbi deboli o forti delle lingue germaniche, e se appartengono a delle sottoclassi (per approfondimenti verbi nelle lingue germaniche (in inglese)).


infinito (simple form/infinitive) passato semplice (past tense/simple past) participio passato (past participle) Note
1 abide abided/abode abided/abode Forte, classe 1
2 arise arose arisen Forte, classe 1
3 awake awoke / awaked awoken / awaked Forte, classe 6
4 be was, were been Suppletive. See: Indo-European copula.
5 bear bore born (nato) /
borne (trasportato)
Forte, classe 4
6 beat beat beaten / beat Forte, classe 7
7 become became become Forte, classe 4
8 befall befell befallen Forte, classe 7
9 beget begot / begat (arcaico) begot / begotten
10 begin began begun Forte, classe 3
11 behold beheld beheld Forte, classe 7
12 bend bent bent Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
13 bereave bereaved / bereft bereaved / bereft Forte, classe 6
14 beseech besought / beseeched besought / beseeched Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
15 beset beset beset Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
16 bespeak bespoke bespoke / bespoken
17 bestrew bestrewed bestrewed / bestrewn
18 bet bet / betted bet / betted Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
19 betake betook betaken
20 bethink bethought bethought
21 bid (all'asta) bid bid Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
22 bid (salutare / richiedere / dire) bade / bid bade / bidden / bid Forte, classe 5
23 bide bode / bided bode / bided Forte, classe 1
24 bind bound bound Forte, classe 3
25 bite bit bitten / bit Forte, classe 1
26 bleed bled bled Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
27 blend blent UK / blended blended
28 bless blest / blessed blest / blessed
29 blow blew blown Forte, classe 7
30 break broke broken Forte, classe 4
31 breastfeed breastfed breastfed
32 breed bred bred Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
33 bring brought brought Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
34 broadcast broadcast broadcast Debole
35 browbeat browbeat browbeat / browbeaten Forte, classe 7
36 build built built Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
37 burn burnt / burned burnt / burned Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
38 burst burst burst Forte, classe 3
39 bust busted / bust busted / bust
40 buy bought bought Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
41 can could been able to Preterite-present; defective
42 cast cast cast Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
43 catch caught caught Debole - a French loanword conjugated perhaps by analogy with teach-taught
44 chide chid / chided chid / chidden Forte, classe 5
45 choose chose chosen Forte, classe 2
46 cleave (spaccare) clove cloven Forte, classe 2
47 cleave (aderire) cleft / cleaved cleft / cleaved Debole, con "vowel reduction"
48 cling clung clung Forte, classe 3
49 colorbreed colorbred colorbred
50 come came come Forte, classe 4
51 cost (intransitivo: essere prezzato) cost cost Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
52 creep crept crept Forte, classe 2
53 crow crowed / crew (archaic) crowed / crew (archaic)
54 cut cut cut Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
55 deal dealt dealt Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
56 dig dug dug
57 dive dived, US dove dived, US dove Forte, classe 2
58 do (irregular 3a sing.: does [dʌz]) did done Reduplication with p.p. springing from OE "gedon"
59 draw drew drawn Forte, classe 6
60 dream dreamt / dreamed dreamt / dreamed Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
61 drink drank drunk Forte, classe 3
62 drive drove driven Forte, classe 1
63 dwell dwelt / dwelled dwelt / dwelled Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
64 eat ate eaten Forte, classe 5
65 enwind enwound enwound
66 fall fell fallen Forte, classe 7
67 feed fed fed Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
68 feel felt felt Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
69 fight fought fought Forte, classe 3
70 find found found Forte, classe 3
71 fit (tutti i significati eccetto cucire/adattare) fit fit Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
72 fit (cucire, adattare) fit / fitted fit / fitted
73 flee fled fled Debole, con "vowel reduction"
74 fling flung flung Forte, classe 3
75 fly flew / flied (baseball) flown / flied (baseball) Forte, classe 2
76 forbear forbore forborne
77 forbid forbade / forbid forbidden / forbid Forte, classe 5
78 forecast forecast / UK forecasted forecast / UK forecasted Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
79 forego forewent foregone Suppletive: See Go (verb).
80 forefeel forefelt forefelt
81 foreknow foreknew foreknown
82 forerun foreran forerun
83 foresee foresaw foreseen Forte, classe 5
84 foreshow foreshowed foreshown / foreshowed
85 forespeak forespoke forespoken
86 foretell foretold foretold Debole, con Rückumlaut
87 forget forgot forgotten / forgot Forte, classe 5
89 forgive forgave forgiven Forte, classe 5
90 forgo forwent forgone Supplitive: See Go (verb).
91 forsake forsook forsaken Forte, classe 6
92 forswear forswore forsworn
93 freeze froze frozen Forte, classe 2
94 get got got / US gotten Forte, classe 5
95 ghostwrite ghostwrote ghostwritten
96 gild gilt / gilded gilt / gilded
97 give gave given Forte, classe 5
98 go went gone Supplitive: See Go (verb).
99 grave (scolpire) graved graven / graved
100 grind (tutti i significati escluso danzare) ground ground
101 grow grew grown Forte, classe 7
102 hagride hagrode hagridden
103 handwrite handwrote handwritten
104 hang (essere sospesi, galleggiare nell'aria) hung hung Preterite-present strong preterit comes from the old p.p.
105 have (irregular 3a sing.: has) had had
106 hear heard heard Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
107 heave (termine nautico) heaved / hove heaved / hove
108 hew hewed hewn Forte, classe 7
109 hide hid hidden
110 hit hit hit Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
111 hold held held Forte, classe 7
112 housesit housesat housesat
113 hurt hurt hurt Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
114 input input / inputted input / inputted Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
115 inset inset inset Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
116 interbreed interbred interbred Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
117 interweave interwove interwoven Forte, classe 7
118 keep kept kept Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
119 ken kenned / kent kenned / kent
120 kneel knelt / US kneeled knelt / US kneeled Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
121 knit knit / knitted knit / knitted Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
122 know knew known Forte, classe 7
123 lay (to put, to place; transitive) laid laid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
124 lead led led Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
125 lean leaned / UK, leant leaned / UK leant Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
126 leap leapt / leaped leapt / leaped Forte, classe 7
127 learn learned / UK learnt learned / UK learnt Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
128 leave left left Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
129 lend lent lent Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
130 let let let Forte, classe 7
131 lie (mettere qualcuno orizzontalmente; intransitivo) lay lain Forte, classe 5
132 light lit / lighted lit / lighted Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
133 lip-read lip-read lip-read
134 lose lost lost Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
135 make made made Debole
136 may might (nessuno) Preterite-present; defective
137 mean meant meant Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
138 meet met met Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
139 miscast miscast miscast
140 mishear misheard misheard Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
141 mislay mislaid mislaid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
142 mislead misled misled Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
143 misread misread misread Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
144 misspell misspelled / UK misspelt misspelled / UK misspelt Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
145 mistake mistook mistaken Forte, classe 6
146 misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood Forte, classe 6
147 mow mowed mown / US mowed Forte, classe 7
148 outbid outbid outbid / outbidden Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
149 outdo outdid outdone
150 outgrow outgrew outgrown Forte, classe 7
151 outrun outran outrun Forte, classe 3
152 outsell outsold outsold Debole, con Rückumlaut
153 overcast overcast overcast Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
154 overcome overcame overcome Forte, classe 4
155 overdo overdid overdone
156 overdraw overdrew overdrawn Forte, classe 6
157 overeat overate overeaten Forte, classe 5
158 overhang overhung overhung Preterite-present
159 overhear overheard overheard Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
160 overlay overlaid overlaid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
161 overlie overlay overlain Forte, classe 5
162 overpay overpaid overpaid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
163 override overrode overridden Forte, classe 1
164 overrun overran overrun Forte, classe 3
165 oversee oversaw overseen Forte, classe 5
166 oversell oversold oversold Debole, con Rückumlaut
167 overshoot overshot overshot Forte, classe 2
168 oversleep overslept overslept Forte, classe 7
169 overtake overtook overtaken Forte, classe 6
170 overthrow overthrew overthrown Forte, classe 7
171 panic panicked panicked
172 partake partook partaken Forte, classe 6
173 pay paid paid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
174 pen (rinchiudere) penned / pent penned / pent
175 picnic picknicked picknicked
176 plead pled / pleaded pled / pleaded Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
177 pre-set pre-set pre-set
178 proofread proofread proofread Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
179 prove proved / prove proved / US proven borrowed French verb
180 put put put Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
181 quit quit (tutti gli altri sensi)/ quitted (lasciare una stanza) quit (tutti gli altri sensi) / quitted (lasciare una stanza) Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
182 read read (IPA: /red/, souna come "red") read (IPA: /red/, suona come "red") Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
183 reave reft / rove reft / reaven Forte, classe 6
184 rebind rebound rebound
185 rebuild rebuilt rebuilt Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
186 recast recast recast Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
187 redo redid redone
188 re-lay re-laid re-laid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
189 remake remade remade Debole
190 rend rent / US rended rent / US rended
191 repay repaid repaid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
192 rerun reran rerun Forte, classe 3
193 resell resold resold Debole, con Rückumlaut
194 reset reset reset Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
195 rethink rethought rethought Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
196 rewind rewound rewound
197 rewrite rewrote rewritten Forte, classe 1
198 rid rid / ridded rid / ridded
199 ride rode ridden Forte, classe 1
200 ring rang rung Forte, classe 3
201 rise rose risen Forte, classe 1
202 rive rived / rove rived / riven Forte, classe 1
203 run ran run Forte, classe 3
204 saw sawed sawed / sawn
205 say (irregulare 3a sing.: says [sɛz]) said said Debole
206 see saw seen Forte, classe 5
207 seek sought sought Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
208 sell sold sold Debole, con Rückumlaut
209 send sent sent Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
210 set set set Debole
211 sew sewed sewn / sewed
212 shake shook shaken Forte, classe 6
213 shall should (nessuno) Preterite-present; defective; see also Shall and will
214 shave shaved / shove shaved / shaven Forte, classe 6
215 shear shore / sheared shorn / sheared Forte, classe 4
216 shed shed shed Forte, classe 7
217 shine shone (tutti i significati eccetto lucidare)/ shined shone (tutti i significati eccetto lucidare)/ shined Forte, classe 1
218 shit shitted / shit / shat shitted / shit / shat Forte, classe 1
210 shite shit / shat / shited shit / shat / shited Forte, classe 1
220 shoe shoed / shod shoed / shod Debole, con "vowel reduction"
221 shoot shot shot Forte, classe 2
222 show showed shown / showed
223 shrink shrank / US shrunk shrunk / US shrunken Forte, classe 3
224 shrive shrove / shrived shriven
225 shut shut shut Debole
226 sing sang sung Forte, classe 3
227 sink sank sunk Forte, classe 3
228 sit sat sat / sitten / setten Forte, classe 5
229 slay slew / slayed slain / slayed Forte, classe 6
230 sleep slept slept Forte, classe 7
231 slide slid slid Forte, classe 1
232 sling slung / slang slung Forte, classe 3
233 slink slunk / slinked slunk / slinked Forte, classe 3
234 slit slit slit Forte, classe 1
235 smell smelled US / smelt smelled US / smelt Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
236 smite smote smitten / smote Forte, classe 1
237 sneak sneaked / snuck US sneaked / snuck US
238 sow sowed sowed / sown Forte, classe 7
239 speak spoke spoken Forte, classe 5
240 speed sped / US speeded sped / US speeded Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
241 spell spelled US / spelt spelled US / spelt Debole
242 spend spent spent Debole
243 spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt Debole
244 spin spun / inglese australiano span spun Forte, classe 3
245 spit spat / US spit spat / US spit
246 split split split Debole
247 spoil spoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt Debole
248 spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed
249 spread spread spread Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
250 spring sprang / US sprung sprung Forte, classe 3
251 stand stood stood Forte, classe 6
252 steal stole stolen Forte, classe 4
253 stick stuck stuck
254 sting stung stung Forte, classe 3
255 stink stank / stunk stunk Forte, classe 3
256 strew strewed strewn / strewed
257 stride strode stridden Forte, classe 1
258 strike (eliminare) struck stricken
259 strike (colpire) struck struck / stricken
260 string strung strung Debole, con sviluppo naturale di forma Forte intransitiva
261 strive strove / strived striven / strived Forte, classe 1
262 swear swore sworn Forte, classe 6
263 sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
264 sweep swept swept Debole, con "vowel reduction" e "assimilation of dentals"
265 swell swelled swollen / swelled Forte, classe 3
266 swim swam swum Forte, classe 3
267 swing swung swung Forte, classe 3
268 take took taken Forte, classe 6
269 teach taught taught Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
270 tear tore torn Forte, classe 4
271 tell told told Debole, con Rückumlaut
272 think thought thought Debole, con Rückumlaut e "Germanic spirant law"
273 thrive thrived / US throve thrived / US thriven Forte, classe 1
274 throw threw thrown Forte, classe 7
275 thrust thrust thrust
276 tread trod trodden / trod Forte, classe 5
277 unbind unbound unbound Forte, classe 3
278 undergo underwent undergone
279 underlie underlay underlain Forte, classe 5
280 understand understood understood Forte, classe 6
281 undertake undertook undertaken Forte, classe 6
282 underwrite underwrote underwritten Forte, classe 1
283 undo undid undone
284 unwind unwound unwound Forte, classe 3
285 uphold upheld upheld Forte, classe 7
286 upset upset upset Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
287 wake woke / waked woken / waked Forte, classe 6
288 waylay waylaid waylaid Debole, irregolare solo nello spelling
289 wear wore worn
290 weave wove woven Forte, classe 7
291 wed wed / wedded wed / wedded Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
292 weep wept wept Forte, classe 7
293 wend went (arcaico) went (arcaico)
294 wet wet / wetted wet / wetted Debole, con "assimilation of dentals"
295 will (eccetto come verbo transitivo) would (nessuno) Preterite-present; defective; see also Shall and will
296 win won won Forte, classe 3
297 wind wound wound Forte, classe 3
298 withdraw withdrew withdrawn Forte, classe 6
299 withhold withheld withheld Forte, classe 7
300 withstand withstood withstood Forte, classe 6
301 work (transitivo) worked /
wrought (raro / arcaico)
worked /
wrought (raro / arcaico)
Debole
302 wring wrung wrung Forte, classe 3
303 write wrote written Forte, classe 1
304 zinc zincked / zinced zincked / zinced

Note[modifica]

I seguenti verbi, tratti dalla precedente lista, vengono scritti alla stessa maniera nel presente semplice e nel passato semplice (sono esclusi i composti come set, beset, inset, upset etc.) : beat, bet, bid, burst, bust, cast, cost, cut, fit, hit, hurt, knit, let, list, put, quit, read, rid, set, shed, shit, shut, slit, spit, split, spread, sweat, thrust, wed, wet. (Da notare che tra tutti i precedenti, solo "read" è pronunciato in manieta differente tra il presente e il passato)

Il passato semplice e il participio passato sono solitamente uguali se il passato semplice termina in -ed. Eccezioni fanno show - showed - shown (da notare che può anche aversi show - showed - showed) e "prove - proved - proven" (di nuovo, "prove - proved - proved" è anche ammesso).

Va notato che molti verbi inglesi sono irregolari in un dialetto e regolari in un altro. In molti casi, come spell (spelt vs. spelled), learn (learnt vs. learned) e spill (spilt vs. spilled), l'inglese americano usa la forma regolare, mentre l'inglese britannico preferisce quella irregolare. In altri casi è vero l'opposto (dived e sneaked in inglese britannico contro dove e snuck in inglese americano). L'inglese australiano tende a seguire quello britannico mentre l'inglese canadese spesso si allinea all'uso americano. Per ulteriori informazioni, fare riferimento a American and British English differences (in inglese).

Le forme segnate UK sono usate nello United Kingdom, ma sono raramente trovate o sono considerate scorrette negli US. Le forme segnate US sono usate negli United States of America, come prima, sono raramente trovate o sono considerate scorrette in UK. Forme senza etichette possono essere considerate standard in entrambe le principali varietà di inglese.

Collegamenti esterni[modifica]